The publication of the landmark paper "Defining Pediatric Malnutrition: A Paradigm Shift Toward Etiology-Related Definitions" launched a new era in diagnosing pediatric malnutrition. This work introduced the paradigm shift of etiology-related definitions-nonillness and illness related-and the use of anthropometric z scores to help identify and describe children with malnutrition (undernutrition) in the developed world. Putting the new definition into practice resulted in some interesting observations: (1) Etiology-related definitions result in etiology-related interventions. (2) Illness-related malnutrition cannot always be immediately "fixed." (3) Using z scores in clinical practice often puts the burden of proof on the clinician to show that a child is not malnourished, rather than the other way around. (4) Children with growth failure severe enough to be admitted with "failure to thrive" should always be assessed for malnutrition, and when they meet the criteria, malnutrition should be documented and coded. The publication of the consensus statement came next, announcing the evidence-informed, consensus-derived pediatric malnutrition indicators. Since the indicators are a work in progress, clinicians are encouraged to use them and give feedback through an iterative process. This review attempts to respond to the consensus statement's call to action by thoughtfully appraising the indicators and making recommendations for future review. Coming together as a healthcare community to identify pediatric malnutrition will ensure that this vulnerable population is not overlooked. Outcomes research will validate the indicators and result in new discoveries of effective ways to prevent and treat pediatric malnutrition.
21. Nudiustertian. Have you ever wished that you had a word for the day before yesterday? This is that word! It might be a little bit more convoluted to say, but it sure is an interesting sounding word. This word is sure to confuse, and eventually astound, people. Now that you know this word, try teaching it to your friends!
33. Donnybrook. This is a fun little word for an uprising, a melee, or a riot. It can also refer to an argument. If you search Google for this particular term, you will not only find the definition but also learn that it is a place called Donnybrook, which is part of Dublin, Ireland. Very interesting!
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is one of the most frequent hospital-acquired infections occurring in intubated patients. Because VAP is associated with higher mortality, morbidity, and costs, there is a need to solicit further research for effective preventive measures. VAP has been proposed as an indicator of quality of care. Clinical diagnosis has been criticized to have poor accuracy and reliability. Thus, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has introduced a new definition based upon objective and recordable data. Institutions are nowadays reporting a VAP zero rate in surveillance programs, which is in discrepancy with clinical data. This reduction has been highlighted in epidemiological studies, but it can only be attributed to a difference in patient selection, since no additional intervention has been taken to modify pathogenic mechanisms in these studies. The principal determinant of VAP development is the presence of the endotracheal tube (ETT). Contaminated oropharyngeal secretions pool over the ETT cuff and subsequently leak down to the lungs through a hydrostatic gradient. Impairment of mucociliary motility and cough reflex cannot counterbalance with a proper clearance of secretions. Lastly, biofilm develops on the inner ETT surface and acts as a reservoir for microorganism inoculum to the lungs. New preventive strategies are focused on the improvement of secretions drainage and prevention of bacterial colonization. The influence of gravity on mucus flow and body positioning can facilitate the clearance of distal airways, with decreased colonization of the respiratory tract. A different approach proposes ETT modifications to limit the leakage of oropharyngeal secretions: subglottic secretion drainage and cuffs innovations have been addressed to reduce VAP incidence. Moreover, coated-ETTs have been shown to prevent biofilm formation, although there is evidence that ETT clearance devices (Mucus Shaver) are required to preserve the antimicrobial properties over time. Here, after reviewing the most noteworthy issues in VAP definition and pathophysiology, we will present the more interesting proposals for VAP prevention.
There it is. Rigor is the result of work that challenges students' thinking in new and interesting ways. It occurs when they are encouraged toward a sophisticated understanding of fundamental ideas and are driven by curiosity to discover what they don't know.
below is an album with the least interesting photos in my photostream, although they are 0 fav 0 comment, they are not the least view in my photostream. and videos seem have larger chance to be "least interesting". may i know the definition of interesting? thanks.www.flickr.com/photos/pohang1976/albums/72157616701997262Posted at 8:32AM, 7 February 2023 PST(permalink| reply)
Something that is interesting occupies the mind with no connotation of pleasure or displeasure: an interesting account of a battle. Something that is pleasing engages the mind favorably: a pleasing account of the wedding. Something that is gratifying fulfills expectations, requirements, etc.: a gratifying account of his whereabouts; a book gratifying in its detail.
Beyond learning a new word a day, this tool is an excellent way to expand your vocabulary in an easy,interesting way. While going through vocabulary lists can take a lot of time and at times be quiteboring, you're guaranteed to have some unusual word pop up with every click which can make it a lot offun. Improving your vocabulary doesn't need to be a drag.
Extended definition: Writing that goes beyond a simple definition of a term in order to make a point; it can cover several paragraphs and include personal definitions and experiences, figures of speech, and quotations.
"As a field biologist, my favorite part of the scientific method is being in the field collecting the data," Jaime Tanner, a professor of biology at Marlboro College, told Live Science. "But what really makes that fun is knowing that you are trying to answer an interesting question. So the first step in identifying questions and generating possible answers (hypotheses) is also very important and is a creative process. Then once you collect the data you analyze it to see if your hypothesis is supported or not."
Multimorbidity and the associated use of multiple medicines (polypharmacy), is common in the older population. Despite this, there is no consensus definition for polypharmacy. A systematic review was conducted to identify and summarise polypharmacy definitions in existing literature.
The reporting of this systematic review conforms to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist. MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE and Cochrane were systematically searched, as well as grey literature, to identify articles which defined the term polypharmacy (without any limits on the types of definitions) and were in English, published between 1st January 2000 and 30th May 2016. Definitions were categorised as i. numerical only (using the number of medications to define polypharmacy), ii. numerical with an associated duration of therapy or healthcare setting (such as during hospital stay) or iii. Descriptive (using a brief description to define polypharmacy).
A total of 1156 articles were identified and 110 articles met the inclusion criteria. Articles not only defined polypharmacy but associated terms such as minor and major polypharmacy. As a result, a total of 138 definitions of polypharmacy and associated terms were obtained. There were 111 numerical only definitions (80.4% of all definitions), 15 numerical definitions which incorporated a duration of therapy or healthcare setting (10.9%) and 12 descriptive definitions (8.7%). The most commonly reported definition of polypharmacy was the numerical definition of five or more medications daily (n = 51, 46.4% of articles), with definitions ranging from two or more to 11 or more medicines. Only 6.4% of articles classified the distinction between appropriate and inappropriate polypharmacy, using descriptive definitions to make this distinction.
Polypharmacy definitions were variable. Numerical definitions of polypharmacy did not account for specific comorbidities present and make it difficult to assess safety and appropriateness of therapy in the clinical setting.
Articles that met the inclusion criteria and provided a definition of polypharmacy were included. One author (NM) conducted the initial database search and primary screening of article titles and abstracts and articles were categorised as: relevant, irrelevant or unsure. Three reviewers (NM, SS, GC) discussed the appropriateness of inclusion of each article classed as relevant or unsure. Once all relevant articles were identified, one author (NM) reviewed full texts of all identified articles and extracted the data. A pre-defined data extraction template was developed by all authors and then applied to ensure consistent data extraction from each of the identified studies. Data items extracted included the definitions of polypharmacy and associated terms such as minor, moderate and excessive polypharmacy and whether studies distinguished between appropriate and inappropriate polypharmacy and if so, how this distinction was made or defined. The definitions of polypharmacy and associated terms were categorised as: i. numerical only (using the number of medications to define polypharmacy), ii. numerical for a given duration of therapy or healthcare setting for e.g. during hospital stay or iii. Descriptive (using a brief description to define polypharmacy). Once the primary data extraction was complete all authors reviewed the content analysis for each of the extracted studies, with data further categorised and summarised in tables. 2b1af7f3a8