Insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM) is a chronic autoimmune disease associated with beta-cell destruction (in persons with type 1 diabetes) or insulin resistance (in persons with type 2 diabetes). While numerous genetic, immunological, and environmental factors contribute to the pathogenesis of IDDM, early detection of patients at high risk for the disease is challenging because of weak associations between the genetic variants and the disease. Due to the heterogeneous nature of the disease, particular strategies have been developed to identify predisposing variants in patients at risk. Recently, several studies have sought to identify genetic variants that may be useful for the identification of patients with IDDM, especially when their family history suggests a significant risk. These include variants in genes involved in the immune response, the development of the beta-cells, and co-localized diabetes, such as the HLA region, or regions of autoimmunity, such as the autoantibody loci, the IA-2 and GP2, and the protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 on 18q22.3, among others. The strongest genetic association with IDDM is attributable to the DRB1 gene, which is hypothesized to act as an antigen-presenting cell receptor, having both disease-predetermining and protective effects. Other loci discussed include the IDDM mapped locus 1 on 1q32.2-32.3 containing the PTPN22, CTLA4, and DMBgene* variants; the ICA69 gene causing immune complexes-mediated autoimmune disease; and the insulin gene on 11p15.5 containing variants associated with haplotype-tagging SNPs, such as CTLA4, ICA69, GAD, IFIH1, TNF, and rs34848206.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by a gradual dysfunction of blood filtering and excretory organs, leading to an elevated risk of complications. One in 13 individuals of European descent are affected by CKD, and prevalence numbers have increased worldwide in the past two decades. The global burden of CKD increases as a direct consequence of the epidemics of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and other risk factors. 7211a4ac4a